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Médecine du travail du personnel hospitalier

Use of interferon gamma-based assay to diagnose tuberculosis infection in health care workers after short term exposure

Auteur Dag Gundersen Storla
Auteur Ingun Kristiansen
et al.
Résumé BACKGROUND: We intended to assess the risk for health care workers (HCWs) of acquiring M. tuberculosis infection after exposure to patients with sputum-smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis at three University Hospitals (Ullevål, Akershus, and Haukeland) in Norway. METHODS: We tested 155 exposed health care workers and 48 healthy controls both with a tuberculin skin test (Mantoux) and the T-SPOT.TB test, a recently developed interferon-gamma release assays based on the M. tuberculosis-specific ESAT-6 and CFP10 antigens, to investigate if this test might improve infection control measures. RESULTS: Among the 155 exposed HCWs tested in this study, 27 individuals were defined as newly infected cases by TST after recent exposure, while only 3 of these had a positive T-SPOT.TB test. The number of T-SPOT.TB positives represents 11% of the individuals defined as recently infected by TST after exposure (3/27) and 2% of the total number of exposed people tested (3/155). In addition, 15 individuals had been previously defined as infected by TST before exposure of whom 2 subjects were T-SPOT.TB positive. All individuals detected as T-SPOT.TB positive belonged to the TST positive group (> 15 mm), and the percentage concordance between T-SPOT.TB and TST, including both previously and newly infected subjects, was 12% (5/42). The 48 control participants used in the study were all T-SPOT.TB negative, but 3 of these subjects were TST positive. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the frequency of latent TB in the total cohort of HCWs is 3%, whereas the rate of transmission of TB to exposed individuals is approximately 2% and occurs through exposure periods of short duration. Thus, the risk of TB transmission to HCWs following TB exposure in a hospital setting in Norway is low, and improved screening approaches will benefit from the application of specific interferon-gamma release assays.
Publication BMC Infectious Diseases
Volume 9
Pages 60
Date 2009

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